A demonstration of "a million". Hundreds of thousands of Egyptians have always gathered on Tuesday evening February 1, in Cairo for a major demonstration called by the opposition. The latter hoped to collect a million people (a figure that has largely been achieved, according to the television channel Al-Jazeera) to bend and President Hosni Mubarak, whom she calls the departure last week. The Egyptian army - one of two pillars, with the police, the authoritarian regime of President Mubarak - has pledged not to use force, saying the claims of the people "legitimate". Large rallies were held in other cities of Egypt, the second largest city, Alexandria and Suez, the Mecca of protests. Protests were also reported in Ismailia and in the Nile Delta towns like Tanta, Mansoura, El-Mahalla El-Kubra.
The protest movement, the most since coming to power of Mr. Mubarak, in 1981, began Jan. 25 and killed at least three hundred dead - according to an unconfirmed report discussed Tuesday by the UN - and thousands injured. The announcement, Monday, January 31, a new government renewed by half and the proposal of Vice-President Omar Suleiman to the opening of dialogue with the opposition did not initiate the determination of the demonstrators.
>> Following the day of action live.
Mubarak is expected to speak. According to the television channel Al-Arabiya, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak will deliver a speech in the evening. He should declare that it renounces again, but intends to remain at his post to meet the demands of the protesters, said the chain, citing unidentified sources.
No violence reported. Helicopters flew over downtown Cairo regularly during the day. The army had closed in the morning and access to capital and other cities. Rail traffic was also interrupted to prevent an onslaught on the capital. Members are assured that they would not use force against demonstrators, but were still cordoned off the city center. Many roads remain inaccessible. No acts of violence were reported Tuesday on the sidelines of major events.
The army has assured that it would not use force against demonstrators.
The army has assured that it would not use force against manifestants.AP / Victoria Hazou
The opposition refuses to negotiate. Protesters respond to calls for pro-democracy organizations from civil society, supported by figures like the Nobel Peace Prize Mohamed ElBaradei, for some of the secular opposition and the Muslim Brotherhood, the opposition force most influential country. Mr ElBaradei said on Tuesday in the satellite channel Al-Arabiya that President Mubarak was scheduled to leave power "by Friday". In an interview with British newspaper The Independent, he warned that if the president "[would] really save his skin, he'd better leave."
A coalition of opponents of President Hosni Mubarak warned the Egyptian government that it would not initiate dialogue on a political transition before the departure of the chairman, said Tuesday the Muslim Brotherhood. "After that, a dialogue will begin with the military on the details of a peaceful transfer of power," said Mohamed El-Beltagi, former member of the Muslim Brotherhood. The coalition includes the Muslim Brotherhood, the National Association for Change by Mohamed ElBaradei, various political parties and personalities including representatives of Copts.
>> Read an interview with Joshua Stacher, University of Kent, "Pragmatic, the Muslim Brotherhood would rather not be at the forefront."
Consider the following. If the situation seems momentarily frozen, some opponents are working to lay the groundwork for the post-Mubarak. This is the case of Mohamed El-Beltagi, who feels that a "board" should provide interim power for three months, the time to organize elections which would emerge a government charged with leading the country for a period two years. This government would be mandated to adopt constitutional reforms, prior to the holding of new elections.
As for Kamel El-Helbaoui, eminent personality of the Muslim Brotherhood organization, he believes that the Chief of Defence Staff, General Sami Enan, would be a possible candidate to succeed Mr Mubarak, given its reputation incorruptible man.
A couple of protesters on Tahrir Square, Cairo, February 1, 2011.
A couple of protesters on Tahrir Square, Cairo, February 1 2011.AFP/KHALED Desouki
The economic future of Egypt becomes. After a week of relentless mobilization, the economic repercussions of the revolt were evident, particularly in the ports of Alexandria and Damietta, where grain ships were increasingly difficult to offload their cargo because of a shortage dockers.
The tourists, one of the main sources of revenue for Egypt, are also increasingly rare. Banks and stock exchanges are closed, the fuel shortage and the call for general strike was still in force. After Moody's on Monday, rating agency Standard and Poor's lowered the rating one notch to Egypt.
Tuesday morning, the International Monetary Fund said he was "ready to help design the type of economic policy could be implemented," according to its director, Dominique Strauss-Kahn. Unesco, for its part, appealed to the safeguarding of cultural and archaeological heritage of the country, which has seven sites listed as World Heritage of Humanity.
>> See the light on the threats facing the Egyptian economy.
Some protesters chanted slogans against the government, Tahrir Square, Cairo, February 1, 2011.
Some protesters chanted slogans against the government, Tahrir Square, Cairo, February 1 2011.AFP/MIGUEL MEDINA
International reactions. Abroad, the wave of protest that swept away the regime of Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali in Tunisia in mid-January and Egypt is undergoing seem to shake the authority of Jordan: King Abdullah has dismissed his prime minister Tuesday Samir Rifai, with demonstrators demanding the resignation and was replaced by his former military advisor Marouf Bakhit. In addition, a call to the event was launched on Friday in Damascus, Syria.
Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who has postponed indefinitely its planned visit in a week in Egypt, Hosni Mubarak invited to listen to the anger of his people. As the United States, they have dispatched an envoy to Egypt Frank Wisner, former ambassador to Cairo, which must meet senior leaders of the regime. The U.S. ambassador in Cairo, Margaret Scobey, spoke on the phone with Mohamed ElBaradei, who also received a phone call from the British ambassador.
Fearing for his part in a possible future power hostile to his country Egypt, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu called on the international community to "demand" respect the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.